Motherboard Parts And Functions

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Motherboard Parts And Functions - The motherboard or mainboard or often called the motherboard is a circuit board where all computer hardware is connected together. Can be called this motherboard as the center connector of all existing computer hardware.

The first motherboard was made in 1977, by Apple for its Apple II. Unlike today, several computer components, such as CPU and memory, were placed on one particular card and connected by cables.

Because of the irregular appearance and difficulty of connecting one PC element to another, some computer product developers create a special place to load various computer peripherals. A wide board is formed that contains various slots as a place to connect several PC components, hereinafter referred to as the motherboard.

The understanding of the motherboard itself is a circuit board where various electronic elements are connected together in a PC or Macintosh and are usually abbreviated in the word mobo. Another understanding of the motherboard or in other words the mainboard is a special board in the form of a PCB that has a bios chip (driver program), lines, and connectors to connect the access of each device.

In the computer mechanism, the peripherals will be both connected to the motherboard and can continue commands through the paths on the board. All connected peripherals can become a complete computer mechanism. While the role of the motherboard, in general, is to connect all the elements that make up a computer. The motherboard can be mentioned as the backbone of the computer mechanism, all computer elements are certainly connected to the motherboard, either directly or indirectly.

Indeed, each motherboard has a form and even a slightly different formation. But this should not be an argument not to know the name of the element on the motherboard.

Well, to minimize that problem, in this article I will explain a little about some of the parts on the motherboard and explain the role of each element.

Motherboard Parts And Functions

Processor Socket / CPU Socket

A processor socket is a place where the processor is installed. If physically witnessed, the place of the processor socket is always surrounded by 4 holes for the Heatsink Fun buffer, because the Processor really needs a heat conductor when working.

The selection of the motherboard should consider the type of processor socket installed because the socket cannot be installed by arbitrary processors. Because one type of processor already has its own socket, and cannot be plugged into another socket.

For example, when you buy a motherboard with a processor socket for AMD, don't expect you to be able to use the motherboard with an Intel processor, because the sockets used are obviously different. So, one of the guidelines when buying a motherboard is to pay attention to the type of processor socket that is available, try to make the socket support the latest processor.

North Bridge

North Bridge is always close to the processor socket, which is one of the main parts of the motherboard. The North Bridge is the focal point of the motherboard and is referred to as the memory controller hub. The Northbridge is connected to the Processor socket, RAM slots, and AGP slots.


South Bridge

The South Bridge is a special two-pole motherboard. The South Bridge is connected with primary and secondary IDE interfaces, SATA connectors, Floppy Drive connectors, PCI, and BIOS slots.

Memory Slots

Physically, it has an elongated shape, according to the length of RAM. In general, the status of these memory slots is adjacent to the processor socket, and generally, there is more than one slot. This is where the RAM is installed.

Remember, each type of RAM (DDR, DDR2, DDR3) has a certain type of slot, so don't buy RAM carelessly, it must match the memory slots on the motherboard.

IDE Slots and SATA Slots

These two slots differ in form, but have the same function, for connecting the hard disk or CD-ROM to the motherboard. The characteristics of fisking and IDE slots are that they have a fairly elongated shape, adjusting to the physical state of the IDE data cable. As for the SATA slots, the physical form is smaller, and it doesn't take up much space, because the SATA data cable has a relatively small shape.

IDE slots can usually be found on older motherboards, that doesn't mean they can't be found on today's motherboards. But in general, motherboards generally start using SATA and leave IDE. So, if you choose a motherboard, try to have SATA slots, because IDE hard drives are also rarely sold (except for the rest).

AGP and PCI Express x16. slots

These 2 slots function as a place for the VGA Card or Graphic Card to be installed. These two slots are different, AGP is the old type and has rarely been found in new types of motherboards. Most motherboards have been using PCI Express slots for connecting to the graphics card.

The status of these slots is generally side by side with PCI slots, even almost parallel. By default, there is only one AGP and PCI Express slot per motherboard. It has the same elongated shape because it adjusts the VGA Card.


PCI and PCI Express x1. slots

These slots are used to attach various types of additional peripherals. The PCI Express here is different from what I mentioned earlier because the one in this section has a smaller form factor.

There are two types of PCI Express, namely PCI Express x16 (for VGA Card) and PCI Express x1 (for additional peripherals).

These PCI slots generally have more than one slot, due to take into account the number of additional peripherals that are installed later.


BIOS (Basic Input Output Mechanism) is a chip that acts as a hardware controller installed on the computer. BIOS is responsible for preparing the computer when it boots by checking the hardware installed on the computer.

Nowadays, BIOS is starting to be replaced with UEFI which comes with more powerful technology. Physically the form of the BIOS or UEFI is like a chip, the place is also uncertain for every type of motherboard. But generally, there is a BIOS reading or the manufacturer's name on the base.


CMOS battery

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) battery is a small battery that is used to provide power to the BIOS and to store all the settings in the BIOS. Shaped like a watch battery, but has a shape that is getting bigger.

By taking the battery from the motherboard, it's the same as resetting the BIOS settings to default settings, because all data in the CMOS battery will be lost. So, if you forget your BIOS password, just remove the CMOS battery.

Power Connector

This connector is also very important from the others. This connector connects the motherboard to the power supply so that the motherboard can get electrical power. Generally numbered 20-24 pins.

I/O Ports

We can generally use this site outside the casing. As a group of ports as input or output computer data. Divided into USB, LAN, VGA, SERIAL, PS/2.

Front Panel Cable Pins

Has a shape-like needle, used to pair the power button, re-start, led power, and led hard drive. To attach the cables that are really small in size, we are generally helped by the readings around the front panel pins of each motherboard.

Those were some of the Motherboard Parts And Functions component parts that are important for you to know about their existence and function. Not that other components that I did not mention are not important, but because the components above are what we often use. Hope it is useful.
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